But how can we introduce so much language when we do not yet recognize the child’s communicative attempts?
You use all that language to build a mutually understandable language.
Yes. Lots of language. Even when they are not yet using any.
It starts with modeling (aided language input). And then we watch, carefully. Look for any signs that can be taught to the child’s entire team, or shaped into something recognizable and functional for that child. Notice their body language. Notice the sounds they make. Notice all the different ways that communication occurs, outside of words. Notice it even if it doesn’t fit the neurotypical model, because communication doesn’t need to fit into that box. It really, truly doesn’t. It doesn’t have to look the same, sound the same, be the same. It just needs to be something that allows this child to communicate the full range of their thoughts and feelings in a way that can be understood. Part of the work is on us — to do the understanding.
From there, we build. That building might look different depending on where the child is, what the child is interested in, what body movements and vocalizations the child may have. But there’s a starting place for everyone.
My student does not yet look at or notice me or the talker.
That’s okay. I mean it. It really is okay. You can still start here. Join your student in the things that are fun for them, whatever they might be. And don’t do it to manipulate them into doing something else. Do it because it’s enjoyable for them and you want to share that experience. Be enthusiastic, be warm, be someone that your students love to be around. Model language here because all of us, every single one of us, like to talk about what we value, what we enjoy.
And start to notice: are there words that seem to draw your student’s attention? Do they pause, look towards you, look towards the talker? Do they make more or less sounds when you say certain things? Assume these movements are intentional. As Kate Ahern says, “we teach intention by assuming intention.” Ascribe meaning and then act on it. If your student glanced at you for one split second when you modeled “go”, then make that car / swing / toy GO. If they start jumping up and down when you model “happy”, then comment on this: “Yes! You are HAPPY! When you smile, I think you are happy.”
These body movements don’t need to be huge. They don’t need to be frequent. We just need to recognize them and show our students why it’s worth repeating. How many times, I wonder, have our students tried to communicate with us, but we didn’t hear them? We are showing them the power of words, yes, but we are also showing them that we are listening. We are finally listening. The thing is: when you start to look for these small signs — noticing, reinforcing, ascribing meaning, making it worthwhile — they are going to start showing up more and more and more.
My student does not yet engage with the talker.
Maybe this student is really observant. You see that they are often watching you model, but yet they haven’t initiated using the talker to communicate.
First, I would troubleshoot to ensure that 1) the child is able to physically access the device, 2) the vocabulary available is powerful to this student, 3) that we have enough vocabulary available for the student, and 4) that we are doing engaging and fun activities, things where the student has a reason to communicate.
Once you’re sure that these four hurdles have been met, then continue to treat as above. Accept any small action that could be a step towards initiating with the device down the road. I have a student where we are currently very excited about reaching for the device. We reinforce reaching for the device by confirming his selection, continuing the activity, responding as we are in a conversation. One day, he’ll start touching it — and then we will be just as excited about that. Reaching, touching it, activating any button, and so on… It’s all part of the journey, just as infants begin with noises and then “ma” and then “mama”.
My student babbles (sometimes labeled as “stims”) on the talker.
Let them. We so easily forget about how important babbling is for young children. They are stimming with their voices. They make repetitive noises. They say words because they sound funny. They blow raspberries and whisper and act ridiculous. It’s part of learning to speak. It’s also one of the most important ways that our students can learn where all the words are, especially if they are not yet readers. They need to be able to do this.
Besides — children who love to babble on their talkers are giving you a really easy way to teach communicative intent. Respond to what they are saying. If they say “sleep”, pretend to go to sleep. If they say “mom”, talk about when you will see their mom. If they say “avocado banana ice cream pudding worms”, you say “Ew! That sounds yucky! I would much rather have chocolate pudding.” Provide context. Teach that when they say something, it matters to you. It’s part of an exchange. But you have to return their exchange for that to be true. How often are we the ones dropping the ball, writing off something as “he didn’t mean that”? Just act as if they do. It makes a difference.
My student presses buttons but doesn’t direct it to me. I wasn’t even nearby!
First off, let’s get this straight. You’re in the kitchen, and you spilll something. Your husband / wife / partner / child is in the living room. Have you ever just yelled out, “I need a towel!”
Our kids have the right to just yell things out too. It’s actually one of the perks of high-tech AAC over sign language, low-tech, etc, when high-tech AAC is possible. They get to yell out from across the room. They get to, quite literally, be heard.
If you’re worried that they won’t understand someone has to be able to hear them, that the message has to be received, I would just give that time. Keep receiving their messages. It’ll build. And there are ways to teach how to get attention with a device, whether high-tech or low-tech. We can work on that. Right now, in the beginning, we just want to teach our children that their voice matters. We want to respond to anything and everything. Not just for the vocabulary that we teach, the interaction that we strengthen, but so they know that they matter. That we will no longer intentionally or unintentionally ignore them. It’s important. It might be some of the most important work we do.
Next week, we’ll build on this by discussing ways we can build communicative intent — and, really, communicative exchange — through multimodal means. We all communicate in many ways: gestures, facial expressions, words… We can support our students by ensuring they have multiple ways to express themselves as well.
See previous posts in the communicative intent series here.