I’m in a virtual book study exploring Koppenhaver & Erickson’s latest work, Comprehensive Literacy for All. I can’t wait to share the things I learn from the text and the discussion. One of the early elements that always leads to a lot of conversation is around the time piece. Erickson & Koppenhaver recommend a minimum of two hours of literacy instruction per day. This can be incredibly overwhelming when teachers are new to literacy instruction in the special education classroom, but we need to remember that it’s not necessarily one solid two hour block. And, even more importantly, it’s definitely NOT two hours of the drill or discrete trial instruction that many of our students have previously experienced with literacy. It is immersion in real reading, and real writing. It is authentic. It matters.
Our preschool literacy instruction looks different than an elementary school literacy block, because we’re preschool. The primary occupation of preschoolers is to play, not to sit at a table or to complete numerous teacher-directed activities. That being said, it’s still very common in early childhood special education classrooms for literacy instruction to be reliant on rote memorization or occur significantly less than in a general education classroom — especially in special education classrooms that serve students with complex bodies or communication needs.
I get it… We aren’t really taught about emergent literacy, supporting literacy in students with complex needs, or meaningful literacy instructions in our special education programs. I’ve been in special education programs across 3 different universities in 2 different states, including programs that led to both general education and special education licensure. I’ve still self-taught most of what I understand about literacy. Our kids have the right to the same high quality tools, the same comprehensive approach that their peers access each day. As such, I thought it would be helpful to showcase the ways that we target literacy skills across the day.
Of note, I teach in the most restrictive preschool public school placement in my county. All of my students use AAC systems and assistive technology tools to participate in various parts of their day. I mention this because no student is too anything for literacy instruction. Ever.
- Personal Belongings: Students practice name recognition by locating their cubby to place their items.
- Sign In / Out: We also have had students “sign in” by moving their name, writing their name, or otherwise indicating that they are here. We do a similar activity at the end of the day. Signing one’s name is NOT a hand-over-hand act. It’s not about perfect letter formation. It’s about creating meaningful connections about print — what letters mean, why we write them, what our names are… It’s really important that it’s not just a disconnected routine, but that there is a purpose. I’ve used sign in to help students locate their cubbies, to sign up for an activity, or to help me do attendance. Students typically sign independently first (which could be one dot on a page). We then model how we would write their name. This is a great opportunity for use of alternative pencils.
- Schedules: We make our individual schedules with the students each morning. It not only gives us a chance to talk about each day, but to also showcase another purpose behind text and how it can convey meaning. Although our schedules do use pictures (as the goal is to be able to use them independently), we draw attention to the print and the letters. We also can showcase how we read from top to bottom.
- Quick activities: We have recently incorporated activity cards into that transition “down time” where students are waiting. We started after seeing a similar activity in an Erikson math video. The use of a visual to reference, combined with communication devices, makes this a more accessible “transition filler” for students. We might look at letter cards and name them, find letter sounds on the keyboard, or think about words that start with certain sounds and letters. If students do not know, then we model and talk about it together. It is not repeated drill of a letter. It is not hand-over-hand “this is the right answer” errorless learning. It is a quick check in, a moment of connection, a chance to chat about letters, numbers, and provide a little structure to time that can be hard for our students to manage independently.
- Clean-up Chart: During clean up time, students have assigned jobs. These jobs rotate every week. They can find their job by looking at our clean-up chart that is posted on our projection screen. We use names of students (not their photos) so that they are learning another way print can be meaningful and provide needed information.
Circle Time Activities
- Calendar / Message: We start with a 5 day, Monday through Friday calendar in our circle. As the year goes on, we are moving into the full month. But it was really important to me that calendar be something that didn’t just act as a vehicle for literacy and math, but made sense to their lives. I wanted it to feel important and manageable. Our calendar has a picture of what they will be doing in art, any special activities, etc… As a shared writing activity, we use that calendar to create a message about the day.
- Words of the Week: We have 2-3 core words every week that we highlight at every circle time. We look at the picture and the text at circle, while I model the words for each child. Some students like to model them for their peers. These words are typically connected to the songs that we are singing.
- Question of the Day: We read a question together, and then students respond by moving their names. The question is typically connected to daily routines, special activities, or our thematic content. We mostly ask preference / opinion questions as our students are very emergent communicators, but mix in some fact-based questions at times (e.g., “Which one of these is a dinosaur?”) The question is another opportunity to use their name for meaning, but we also connect the different answer choices to letters and print. For example, one question was, “What do you like to do outside?” We had run, walk, and climb. We talked about each option, modeled it on the talker, and modeled the sounds we hear at the beginning of each word.
- Voting: We love to vote! We vote on which songs we will sing, on which activities we should do for sensory, on what we should cook, and so much more. Voting, like question of the day, is a chance for students to make meaningful, real choices using their names and other print concepts.
- Songs: We always connect songs with their titles — and sometimes their written lyrics. I’ll also search for our songs on YouTube, while modeling sounding out the word, finding the right letter to enter, and using that search engine. Once again — it’s meaningful, it matters, it’s important to the students, but it also is a fantastic vehicle for building a lifelong literacy foundation.
- Signing Out:
- Literacy Concepts: I didn’t highlight the specific literacy skills for each activity, because they really have an endless number of possibilities. On some days, we focus on letter recognition and letter sounds. We might find the letters in our message, in the calendar, or in our schedule. At other times, we focus on tracking text left to right. Students take turns to track it with pen, pointer, etc. We’ve also clapped the syllables for different words, counted the number of words in out sentence, and practiced touching one word at a time.
- Directions: We use visual supports for our art activities, which typically includes a model. I always write short directions to go along with the visual. The staff member leading that activity draws attention not just to the picture, but to the printed directions. Although preschoolers cannot independently read directions, that’s not the point. The point is to model all the different ways that print adds meaning to our lives. The point is that students need to see us reading, writing, and participating in literacy experiences for a wide variety of purposes.
- Tell me about it… During and after art, we always encourage students to tell us about their artwork with their talkers. We try really hard to keep this open-ended, and so we might say, “I notice lots of…” and then describe colors, shapes, sizes, etc… We don’t want to tell them what their art is, but we do want to model the language used. We write down ANYTHING they dictate to us. ANYTHING. If that means I write, “one one one one one one one one one”, then that’s what I write. I ask questions. I wonder out loud. I show them how much it means to me that they are sharing their words with me.
- Signing: We always encourage students to sign their work! Similar to above, it’s not about hand over hand writing a name. It’s about saying, “This is mine! I did this!” Through repeated opportunity and modeling, we scaffold towards writing their name in more standard form over time — a process that all kids go through.
- Activities in the iPad center are super individualized to each student. We have apps that cover a wide variety of rich experiences. Students scribble, draw, and make stories in alphabet and story apps. They match and sort (which is a huge favorite in our room) in ways that include letters and words. The Endless Reader apps are also a fan favorite, especially when each letter makes its own sound. We do also have some interactive books on iPad, which can be a great gateway for students who are still discovering an interest in reading and listening to stories.
- Reading – We engage in shared reading activities in groups of 1-3 students. Students also have the ability to self-select books at any time during the day. We are pretty open to self-selection of books happening anytime, anywhere. Shared reading is a different type of experience than just reading the text to students, and I’ll elaborate more on that in another post.
- Writing – We engage in shared writing and independent writing several times a week. We use visual structures, assistive technology, and pictures to support students to write. Sometimes we create a story or write sentences together, such as when we each talked about where our monster liked to jump after singing “Five Little Monsters Jumping on the Bed”. At other times, students select images from their week or preferred things and write on their own. This is another process that I’m hoping to expand on in a blog post soon. Because this tends to be a little more teacher-directed, this doesn’t happen every day. With older students, we would likely rotate through this center daily — but we are still preschoolers. We are made to play!
- Play – The most important! We have letter toys, letter magnets, giant letters, letter blocks…. We have alphabet dinosaurs, acorns, and lollipops. We have so many alphabet puzzles, from inset piece to 48 piece floor puzzles. We play with song and sound and silly noises. We explore and experiment with letters. We have dry erase markers for coloring on the board. We pull out crayons and shaving cream and play-doh for making scribbles and letters. This is so much more important than any structured writing activity could be at this age!
Pretend Play / Blocks
- This is probably where our incorporation of print activities is weakest. I have so many ideas on how to incorporate literacy, but it can be really difficult to implement them. For many of my students, pretend play and blocks tends to be more challenging for them (in comparison to visual activities, puzzles, gross motor, etc). When we add the literacy element, such as making a sign for a building, taking a lunch order, or looking in a cookbook, it can become too much or too teacher-directed. It turns from play to work. We are working to choose one embedded activity that we might include per unit. For example, we are adding cookbooks and menus to our kitchen center for the next few weeks. When we talked about sharks and fish, we had hanging charts that students could reference about sharks and fish. The use of these items is often primarily adult modeled at this time.
- However, we focus HEAVILY on providing aided language stimulation (adult modeling of student devices). This is an important part of literacy for our students, as the speaking and listening components are essential to being able to convey meaningful ideas through both spoken and written language. Each and every student in our classroom has access to a robust vocabulary AAC system, which means LOTS of words. We model request, comments, questions, protests, social engagement… Our goal is to model language on a device every single time we are talking and interacting with a student.